Augmented reality pictorial storybook: How does it influence on elementary school mathematics anxiety?

Azmil Hasan Lubis, Muhammad Darwis Dasopang, Fitri Ramadhini, Efrida Mandasari Dalimunthe


This study aims to explore the effect of media Augmented reality pictorial storybook on the anxiety of elementary school students in mathematics learning. This study used a quantitative approach with a quasi-experimental type of research. The experimental design used was a pretest-posttest control group design. The sample of this study was 60 students of fifth grade elementary school which were divided into two groups, namely the experimental group and the control group. The sampling technique used is cluster random sampling. The data were collected by using a mathematical anxiety questionnaire which was analyzed by means of a comparison technique, score trend test, and t-test. The results showed that the use of Augmented reality pictorial storybooks can reduce students' anxiety levels in mathematics learning. This can be seen from the average value of the pretest and posttest in the experimental class which showed a more significant decrease in anxiety towards mathematics learning (47.73%) than the decrease in anxiety in the control class (4.73%). The t-test results show that the significance value is 0.00 (<0.05), which means that Augmented reality pictorial storybooks have a significant effect on students' anxiety in mathematics learning.


Augmented Reality; Pictorial Storybook; Mathematics Anxiety; Elementary School

Full Text:



Abbas, J. (2020). Service Quality in Higher Education Institutions: Qualitative Evidence from the Students’ Perspectives Using Maslow Hierarchy of Needs. International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, 12(3), 371–384.

Abdullah, A. (2010). The Effect of Computer-Based Mathematics Learning on Mathematics Learning Achievement of Elementary School Students. Al-Bidayah: Jurnal Pendidikan Dasar Islam, 2(2), 171–191.

Adiansha, A. A., Sani, K., Sudarwo, R., Nasution, N., & Mulyadi, M. (2021). Brain-based Learning: How does Mathematics Creativity Develop in Elementary School Students? Premiere Educandum: Jurnal Pendidikan Dasar Dan Pembelajaran, 11(2), 191–202.

Alghazali, M. I. (2019). The Effect of Picture Story Media and Reading Literacy on Learning Outcomes of Elementary School Students. JTP-Jurnal Teknologi Pendidikan, 21(3), 269–282.

Apriliani, S. P., & Radia, E. H. (2020). Development of Picture Storybook Learning Media to Increase Reading Interest of Elementary School Students. Jurnal Basicedu, 4(4), 994–1003.

Arsyad, A. (2011). Learning Media. Jakarta: PT Raja Grafindo Persada.

Cahyati, S. Y., & Rhosalia, D. R. (2020). Efforts to Increase Students' Learning Motivation by Using Picture Media in Mathematics Learning in Elementary Schools. PENSA, 2(1), 9–16.

Carden, J., & Cline, T. (2015). Problem Solving in Mathematics: The Significance of Visualisation and Related Working Memory. Educational Psychology in Practice, 31(3), 235–246.

Dasopang, M. D., Erawadi, A. S., Lubis, A. A., & Hasibuan, H. (2020). Analysis of Students’ Mental Health after Terror Cases in Indonesia. Systematic Reviews in Pharmacy, 11(2), 939–943.

Desi, D., & Lumbantoruan, J. H. (2020). Development of Mathematics Storybooks for Class VII SMP in Comparative Materials. EduMatSains: Jurnal Pendidikan, Matematika Dan Sains, 1(1), 23–34.

Hanan, R. A., Fajar, I., Pramuditya, S. A., & Noto, M. S. (2018). Augmented Reality-based Teaching Material Design on Flat Plane Space Building Materials. Prosiding Seminar Nasional Matematika Dan Pendidikan Matematika (SNMPM), 2(1), 287–299.

Hunt, P. (2006). Understanding Children’s Literature. Routledge.

Jameson, M. M. (2013). The Development and Validation of the Children’s Anxiety in Math Scale. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 31(4), 391–395.

Januariyansah, S., & Rohmantoro, D. (2018). The Role of Digital Classroom Facilities to Accommodate Learning Process Of The Z and Alpha Generations. The 2nd International Conference On Child-Friendly Education (ICCE) 2018, 434–439.

Johnson, R. B., & Christensen, L. (2014). Educational Research: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Approaches (5 (ed.)). Sage Publication.

Kato, H. (2012). Introduction to Augmented Reality. Kyokai Joho Imeji Zasshi/Journal of the Institute of Image Information and Television Engineers.

Koesnandar, A. (2019). Interactive Multimedia Learning Software Development. Jurnal Teknodik, 10(18), 75–88.

Laurens, T., Batlolona, F. A., Batlolona, J. R., & Leasa, M. (2017). How does Realistic Mathematics Education (RME) Improve Students’ Mathematics Cognitive Achievement? Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, 14(2), 569–578.

Lee, K. (2012). Augmented Reality in Education and Training. TechTrends, 56(2), 13–21.

Lestari, D. (2014). Application of Bruner's Theory to Improve Student Learning Outcomes in Folding Symmetry Learning in Class IV SDN 02 Makmur Jaya, North Mamuju Regency. Jurnal Kreatif Online, 3(2), 129–141.

Lidinillah, D. A. M. (2008). Problem Solving Learning Strategies in Elementary School. Jurnal Pendidikan Dasar, 10(2), 1–5.

Lubis, A. H. (2019). Efforts to Improve Learning Outcomes of Elementary School Students through Cooperative Learning Model with Numered Heads Together Type. FORUM PAEDAGOGIK, 11(2), 127–143.

Lubis, A. H., & Dasopang, M. D. (2020). Development of Augmented Reality-Based Picture Storybooks to Accommodate Generation Z. Jurnal Pendidikan: Teori, Penelitian, Dan Pengembangan, 5(6), 780–791.

Lubis, A. H., & Dasopang, M. D. (2021). Online Learning during the Covid-19 Pandemic: How is It Implemented in Elementary Schools? Premiere Educandum: Jurnal Pendidikan Dasar Dan Pembelajaran, 11(1), 120–134.

Lubis, A. H., & Wangid, M. N. (2019). Augmented Reality-assisted Pictorial Storybook: Media to Enhance Discipline Character of Primary School Students. Mimbar Sekolah Dasar, 6(1), 11–20.

Lubis, A. H., Yusup, F., Dasopang, M. D., & Januariyansah, S. (2021). Effectivity of Interactive Multimedia with Theocentric Approach to the Analytical Thinking Skills of Elementary School Students in Science Learning. Premiere Educandum: Jurnal Pendidikan Dasar Dan Pembelajaran, 11(2), 215–226.

Ma, J. Y., & Choi, J. S. (2007). The Virtuality and Reality of Augmented Reality. Journal of Multimedia, 2(1), 32–37.

Maskur, R., Nofrizal, N., & Syazali, M. (2017). Development of Mathematics Learning Media with Macromedia Flash. Al-Jabar: Jurnal Pendidikan Matematika, 8(2), 177–186.

Matulka, D. I. (2008). A Picture Book: Understanding and Using Picture Books. Greenwood Publishing.

Mawanto, A., Siswono, T. Y. E., & Lukito, A. (2020). Development of Picture Story Media to Train Students' Creative Thinking Skills in Class II Fractions. Jurnal Cendekia: Jurnal Pendidikan Matematika, 4(1), 424–437.

Morsanyi, K., Busdraghi, C., & Primi, C. (2014). Mathematical Anxiety is Linked to Reduced Cognitive Reflection: A Potential Road from Discomfort in the Mathematics Classroom to Susceptibility to Biases. Behavioral and Brain Functions, 10(1), 1–13.

Mulyono, D., & Hidayati, A. N. (2020). Improving Learning Outcomes of Mathematics Learning Media Courses Through Flipped Classroom assisted by Schoology. JTP-Jurnal Teknologi Pendidikan, 22(2), 88–95.

Nee, A. Y. C., Ong, S. K., Chryssolouris, G., & Mourtzis, D. (2012). Augmented Reality Applications in Design and Manufacturing. CIRP Annals, 61(2), 657–679.

Nincarean, D., Alia, M. B., Halim, N. D. A., & Rahman, M. H. A. (2013). Mobile Augmented Reality: The Potential for Education. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 103(1), 657–664.

Nurgiyantoro, B. (2018). Fiction Study Theory. Yogyakarta: UGM press.

Palmarini, R., Erkoyuncu, J. A., Roy, R., & Torabmostaedi, H. (2018). A Systematic Review of Augmented Reality Applications in Maintenance. Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, 49(1), 215–228.

Pingge, H. D., & Wangid, M. N. (2016). Factors Affecting Learning Outcomes of Elementary School Students in Tambolaka City District. Jurnal Pendidikan Sekolah Dasar Ahmad Dahlan, 2(1), 107–122.

Prasad, K. S. (2011). Learning Mathematics by Discovery. Academic Voices: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 1(1), 31–33.

Putri, A. R., & Mustadi, A. (2020). Connecting Science with Story Tale: How Sainsmatika Story Tale Book Decrease Science Anxiety of 4th Graders Student. SEJ (Science Education Journal), 3(2), 57–66.

Santrock, J. W. (2011). Educational Psychology (5th ed.). McGraw-hill Companies.

Saputri, F. I. (2016). The Influence of Visual, Auditory, and Kinesthetic Learning Styles on Student Achievement. Jurnal Prima Edukasia, 3(01), 25–36.

Tian, J., & Siegler, R. S. (2017). Fractions Learning in Children with Mathematics Difficulties. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 50(6), 614–620.

Ula, N., Hartatik, S., Nafiah, N., & Akhwani, A. (2020). Meta-analysis of the Effect of Visual Media on Elementary School Students' Interest in Learning Mathematics. AKSIOMA: Jurnal Matematika Dan Pendidikan Matematika, 11(1), 82–92.

Wagiran. (2014). Educational Research Methodology: Theory and Implementation. Deepublish.

Wangid, M. N., Rudyanto, H. E., & Gunartati, G. (2020). The Use of AR-Assisted Storybook to Reduce Mathematical Anxiety on Elementary School Students. International Journal of Interactive Mobile Technologies (IJIM), 14(6), 195–204.

Waskitoningtyas, R. S. (2016). Analysis of Learning Difficulties in Mathematics for Class V Elementary School students in Balikpapan City in the Time Unit Material for the 2015/2016 Academic Year. JIPM (Jurnal Ilmiah Pendidikan Matematika), 5(1), 24–32.

Williamson, B., Potter, J., & Eynon, R. (2019). New Research Problems and Agendas in Learning, Media and Technology: The Editors’ Wishlist. In Learning, Media and Technology (Vol. 44, Issue 2, pp. 87–91). Taylor & Francis.

Wolfolk, A. (2016). Educational Psychology (13th ed.). Pearson Education Inc.

Zuchdi, D. (2012). Skilled Reading and Noble Character. Yogyakarta: Multi Presindo.

Article Metrics

Abstract has been read : 383 times
PDF file viewed/downloaded: 0 times



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2022 Premiere Educandum : Jurnal Pendidikan Dasar dan Pembelajaran

Premiere Educandum: Jurnal Pendidikan Dasar dan Pembelajaran published by UNIVERSITAS PGRI MADIUN.

View Premiere Educandum Stats