Stepmothers, witches and fairy godmothers in grimms’ children’s and household tales: students’ perceptions of women stereotypes

Mochammad Alnico Herlisanto, Ali Mustofa, Pratiwi Retnaningdyah

Abstract


Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm are two of the most famous fairy tale writers with Children's and Household Tales (de: Kinder- und Hausmärchen) which have been popular over the last decades and are still read by the average people today. However, each story in their collection are rarely depicted an untroubled relationship between mother and child. The category of mothers inside these tales are traditionally divided into the positive mother figures, particularly for giving and creating life, protecting, feeding and nurturing their children; and conversely for the negative types of mother who starve their children and threaten to eat them. This study further aims to analyze the students' perceptions of women stereotypes through the tales of the Grimm Brothers. While the data was gathered through questionnaire and document analysis. The finding shows that students as participants have explored the perceptions surrounding these fairy tales that their mother figure are very weak and the women who become mothers do not care for and even neglect their children. This further attracts the researcher to immediately reveal the discord and competition between mother and child, especially daughters, which causes the unhealthy relationship of these two people.

Keywords


Grimm Brothers; students’ perceptions; women stereotypes; Children’s and Household Tales; fairy tales

Full Text:

PDF

References


al-Barazenji, L. I.. (2015). “Women’s Voice and Images in Folk Tales and Fairy Tales”. International E-Journal of Advances in Social Sciences, 1(1), 47-53.

al-Jaf, A. I.. (2017). “Significance of Archetypes in Literature with Reference to Literary Criticism”, Lark Journal for Philosophy, Linguistics and Social Sciences, 1(26), 689-695.

Åström, B.. (2017). “Introduction–Explaining and Exploring the Dead or Absent Mother” in The absent mother in the cultural imagination: missing, presummed dead (pp. 1-24). Cham: Palgrave Macmillan.

Ahmadi, A.. (2016). “Archetype Dongeng Jerman: Kajian Psikoanalisis Jungian”. Jurnal Toto Buang, 4(2), 147-159.

Akbar, T.; Malik, R.; and Azam, F.. (2018). “Gender Issues in Children's Literature: An Analysis of Fairytales”, Pakistan Journal of Education, 35(1).

Bettelheim, B.. (1989). The uses of enchantment: The meaning and importance of fairy tales. Vintage.

Blum, L.. (2004). Stereotypes and stereotyping: A moral analysis. Philosophical papers, 33(3), 251-289.

Baker-Sperry, L. and Grauerholz, L.. (2003). The pervasiveness and persistence of the feminine beauty ideal in children’s fairy tales. Gender & society, 17(5), 711-726.

Černoušek, M.. (1990). Děti a svět pohádek. Albatros.

Cekiso, M.. (2013). “Gender stereotypes in selected fairy tales: Implications for teaching reading in the foundation phase in South Africa”, Journal of Sociology and Social Anthropology, 4(3), 201-206.

Crain, B.. (2018). “Finding Our "Happily Ever After": How Poor Fairy-Tale Parenting Breeds a Better Child”. Louisiana Tech University. https://digitalcommons.latech.ed/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1004&context=theses.

De Abreu, M.. (2015). “Snow White and Other Fairies, and the Roles of Women”, Bergen Scholarly Journal, Volume 2.

Deluse, A. J.. (2015). “Once Upon a Time to Happily Ever After: Enduring Themes and Life Lessons of Fairy Tales in "Snow White" and "Beauty and the Beast"” (Senior Theses). Trinity College. http://digitalrepository.trincoll.edu/theses/505.

Dworkin, A.. (1974). Woman hating. New York: Plume.

Dyer, R.. (1999). The role of stereotypes. Media studies: A reader 2: 1-6.

Eliade, M.. (1959). The sacred and the profane: The nature of religion, translated by Willard R. Trask. Harcourt, Brace & World.

Fox, M.. (1993). “Men who weep, boys who dance: The gender agenda between the lines in children's literature.” Language arts, 70(2), 84-88.

Gill, G. R.. (2018). Archetypal Criticism: Jung and Frye. A Companion to Literary Theory, pp. 396-407.

Grimm, J. and Grimm, W.. (1960). The Grimms' German folk tales, translated by Francis Peabody Magoun Jr. and Alexander Haggerty Krappe. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press.

Grimm, J., and Grimm, W.. (2014). The Original Folk and Fairy Tales of the Brothers Grimm: The Complete First Edition, translated by Jack Zipes. Princeton University Press.

Harries, E. W.. (2001). Twice Upon a Time: Women Writers and the History of the Fairy Tale. New Jersey: Princeton University Press.

Hewitt-White, C.. (2003). “The Stepmother in the Grimms’ Children’s and Household Tales.” Journal of the Motherhood Initiative for Research and Community Involvement, 5(1).

Högnadóttir, G. E.. (2019). “Mirror, Mirror on the Wall”: The Representation and Objectification of Women in Fairy Tales by the Brothers Grimm” (Doctoral dissertation). Háskóli Íslands. https://skemman.is/bitstream/1946/32747/2/BA%20ESSAY%20%20Guðbjörg%20Ebba%20Högnadóttir.pdf.

Iser, W.. (1972). “The reading process: A phenomenological approach”, New literary history, 3(2), 279-299.

Iser, W.. (1994). Der Akt des Lesens: Theorie ästhetischer Wirkung. Wilhelm Fink.

Jung, C. G.. (1966). Two essays in analytical psychology (Second edition), edited and translated by Sir Herbert Read, Michael Fordham, Gerhard Adler, and R.F.C. Hull. New Jersey: Princeton University Press.

Jung, C. G.. (1967). Symbols of transformation (Second edition), edited and translated by Sir Herbert Read, Michael Fordham, Gerhard Adler, and R.F.C. Hull. New Jersey: Princeton University Press.

Jung, C. G.. (1968). The archetypes and the collective unconscious (Second edition), edited and translated by Sir Herbert Read, Michael Fordham, Gerhard Adler, and R.F.C. Hull. New Jersey: Princeton University Press.

Krsková, H.. (2017). “The Portrayal of Woman in Selected Contemporary Fairy Tales” (Doctoral dissertation). Univerzita Pardubice, Fakulta filozofická. https://theses.cz/id/rj5yig/KrskovH_ feminismwoman_B_ 2017.pdf.

Kuykendal, L. F. and Sturm, B. W.. (2007). “We said feminist fairy tales, not fractured fairy tales!”. Children & Libraries: The Journal of the Association for Library Service to Children 5(3): 38-41.

Labudová, K.. (2017). “Dead Mothers and Absent Stepmothers in Slovak and Romani Fairy Tales” in The absent mother in the cultural imagination: missing, presummed dead (pp. 73-89). Cham: Palgrave Macmillan.

Lieberman, M. R.. (1972). “"Some Day My Prince Will Come": Female Acculturation through the Fairy Tale”, College English, 34(3), 383-395.

Lippmann, W.. (1956). Public Opinion. New York: Macmillan.

Lobo, A. G.. (2013). “Reader-Response Theory: A Path towards Wolfgang Iser”, Letras, (54), 13-30.

Lurie, A.. (1970). “Fairy tale liberation”, The New York Review of Books, 17, 42-44.

O'Connor, P.. (1989). “Images and motifs in children's fairy tales”, Educational Studies 15.2: 129-144.

Ouimet, K. R.. (2015). “A Grimm Reminder: Representations of Female Evil in the Fairy Tales of the Brothers Grimm”. The University of British Columbia. https://open.library.ubc.ca/cIRcle/collections/undergraduateresearch/ 52966/items/1.0221649.

Parfitt, E.. (2019). Young People, Learning and Storytelling. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan.

Parsons, L. T.. (2004). “Ella evolving: Cinderella stories and the construction of gender-appropriate behavior”. Children’s literature in education 35(2): 135-154.

Patton, M. Q.. (1999). “Enhancing the quality and credibility of qualitative analysis”, Health services research, 34 (5 Pt 2), 1189.

Rahman, F.. (2017). “The Revival of Local Fairy Tales for Children Education”, Theory and Practice in Language Studies, (7.5): 336-344.

Rahman, G.. (2014). “The Archetypes of Hero and Hero's Journey in Five Grimm's Fairy Tales”, Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta. https://eprints.uny.ac.id/19340/1/Gatricya%20Rahman% 2008211141020.pdf.

Relke, J.. (2007). “The archetypal female in mythology and religion: The anima and the mother”, Europe's Journal of Psychology, 3(1). https://ejop.psychopen.eu/index.php/ejop/article/view/389/389.html.

Robbins, S.. (1994). “Making connections through the use of fairy tales”, Theses Digitization Project. 914. California State University, San Bernardino. https://scholarworks.lib.csusb.edu/etd-project/914.

Saguni, F.. (2014). “Pemberian stereotype gender”. Jurnal Musawa IAIN Palu 6(2): 195-224.

Sayer, I. M.; Kristiawan, M.; and Agustina, M.. (2018). “Fairy tale as a medium for children’s character cooperation building”. Al-Ta Lim Journal, 25(2).

Schanoes, V. L.. (2014). Fairy Tales, Myth and Psychoanalytic Theory: Feminism and Retelling the Tale. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.

Schnibben, A.. (2014). “Enchanted: A Qualitative Examination of Fairy-Tales and Women’s Intimate Relational Patterns” (Doctoral dissertation). Antioch University. aura.antioch.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1134&context=etds.

Schwartz, S. E.. (2013). “The "Dead Mother" Effect on a Daughter, Sylvia Plath”, Plath Profiles: An Interdisciplinary Journal for Sylvia Plath Studies, 6, 335-352.

Schwartz, S. E.. (2019). “The Absence of Mother. In Speaking of Jung: Interview with Jungian Analysts” (online). https://speakingofjung.com/podcast/2019/1/18/episode-40-susan-schwartz.

Silver, A. A.. (2015). “Wicked, selfish, and cruel: An inquiry into the stepmother narrative” (Doctoral dissertation). Antioch University. https://www.antioch.edu/wp-content/uploads/2016/12/Wicked-Selfish-and-Cruel-An-Inquiry-into-the-Stepmother-Narrative.pdf.

Silverman, D.. (2015). Interpreting qualitative data. SAGE Publications.

Tatar, M.. (1987). The Hard Facts of the Grimms' Fairy Tales. New Jersey: Princeton University Press.

Tatar, M.. (1999). The Classic Fairy Tales. New York: W. W. Norton & Company.

Trisnawati, R. K.. (2009). “Implementing reader-response theory: An alternative way of teaching literature research report on the reading of Booker T. Washington's Up from Slavery”, JEE: Journal of English and Education, 3(1), 1-14.

Tyson, L.. (2006). Critical theory today: A user-friendly guide (Second edition). New York: Routledge.

von Franz, M-L. (1990). Individuation in fairy tales: Revised edition. Shambhala Publications.

Welsh, E.. (2014). “Mother” in Encyclopedia of psychology and religion (Second edition), edited by David Adams Leeming. New York: Springer.

Wu, S. and Wang, W. (2019). “The Influence of Female Images in Grimms’ Fairy Tales on Children Against the Background of Patriarchal Society”. 3rd International Conference on Art Studies: Science, Experience, Education (ICASSEE 2019). Atlantis Press.


Article Metrics

Abstract has been read : 1291 times
PDF file viewed/downloaded: 0 times


DOI: http://doi.org/10.25273/etj.v10i1.11497

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2022 Mochammad Alnico Herlisanto, Ali Mustofa, Pratiwi Retnaningdyah

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

ETJ Stats

 

English Teaching Journal: A Journal of English Literature, Language and Education indexed by:

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.