Because the sky is the limit: Interpretive phenomenological analysis of millennial elementary school teachers using digital technology in the classroom

Dian Veronika Sakti Kaloeti, Rouli Manalu


The population of millennials who work as elementary school teachers is currently increasing because it replaces the previous generation who will retire. This generation grows surrounded by technology and educates technology savvy too. This study aims to explore the experience of millennial teacher related to the use of technology in learning in primary schools. Two research questions were proposed, namely: 1) How did millennial teacher experience their role as teacher for elementary school students? ; 2) What is the experience of millennial teacher when using technology in learning for students in elementary schools. This study uses a qualitative method with the Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) approach. Semi-structured interviews with open-ended questions were conducted on 6 elementary school teacher. The analysis showed four emergent themes, namely: (1) Interpersonal experience; (2) Technology as a learning tool; (3) Barriers to integrating technology in learning; (4) Strategy to overcome obstacles. Collaborative, and collegial relationships will help the subject to make an active contribution at work. Familiarity with technology helps millennial teachers in innovating learning and interacting with students.


Millennial teachers; elementary school; learning technology; interpretative phenomenological analysis

Full Text:



Al-Ani, W. T. (2015). Blended learning approach using moodle and student’s achievement at Sultan Qaboos University in Oman. Journal of Education and Learning, 2(3), 96–110.

AlontagaJ.& Durban, J. (2013). A self-assessment of the professional among elementary school teachers. European Social Science Research Journal, 1(1).

Attard, C., & Orlando, J. (2014). Early career teachers, mathematics and technology: Device conflict and emerging mathematical knowledge. Curriculum In Focus: Research Guided Practice: Proceedings of The 37th Annual Conference of The Mathematics Education Research Group of Australia (Merga 37), Aerial Centre, The University of Technology, Sydney, NSW, Australia, 71–78.

Batz, Z., Olsen, B. J., Dumont, J., Dastoor, F., & Smith, M. K. (2017). Helping struggling students in introductory Biology: A peer-tutoring approach that improves performance, perception and retention. CBE- Life Sciences Education, 14, 1–12.

Bennett, V. M., & Levinthal, D. A. (2017). Firm lifecycles: Linking employee incentives and firm growth dynamics. Strategic Management Journal, 38(10).

Cavanaugh, J. M., Giapponi, C. C., & Golden, T. D. (2016). Digital technology and student cognitive development: The neuroscience of the University Classroom. Journal of Management Education, 40(4), 374–397.

Chiu, T. K. F., & Churchill, D. (2015). Exploring the characteristics of an optimal design of digital materials for concept learning in mathematics : Multimedia learning and variation theory. Computers & Education, 82, 280–291.

Coomes, M. D., & Debard, R. (2004). Serving the millennials generation: New directions for student services. San Fransisco: CA: Jossey-Bass.

Creswell, J. W. (2015). Educational research: Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research. New York: Pearson Education.

Darling-Hammond, L. (2017). Teacher education around the world : What can we learn from international teacher education around the world : What can we learn from international practice ? European Journal of Teacher Education, 40(3), 291–309.

Darling-Hammond, L., Wilhoit, G., & Pittenger, L. (2014). Accountability for college and career readiness developing a new paradigm. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 22(86).

DeVaney, S. (2015). Understanding the millennial generation. Journal of Financial Service Professionals, 69, 11–14. Retrieved from

Deyoe, R. H., & Fox, T. L. (2011). Identifying strategies to minimize workplace conflict due to generational differences. Journal of Behavioral Studies in Business, 41, 1–17. Retrieved from

Dimmock, M. (2019). Defining generations: Where millennials end and generation Z begins. Retrieved from Pew Research Center website:

Ertmer, P. A., Ottenbreit-Leftwich, A. T., Sadik, O., Sendurur, E., & Sendurur, P. (2012). Teacher beliefs and technology integration practices: A critical relationship. Computers & Education, 59(2), 423–435.

Flanagan, S., & Shoffner, M. (2013). Teaching with(out) technology: Secondary english teachers and classroom technology use. Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education, 13(3), 242–261.

Harcourt, H. M. (2017). Teaching K-12 literacy in a digital world. UCLA: HMH Author and Associate Director, California Reading & Literature Project.

Horn, M. B., Staker, H., & Christensen, C. M. (2014). Blended: Using disruptive innovation to improve schools. In The Chsristensen Institute. Retrieved from

Howe, N., & Strauss, W. (2000). Millennials rising: The next generations. New York: Vintage Books.

Joiner, R., Gavin, J., Brosnan, M., Cromby, J., Gregory, H., Guiller, J., Moon, A. (2013). Comparing first and second generation digital natives’ internet use, internet anxiety and internet identification. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 16(7).

Kaifi, B. A., Nafei, W. A., Khanfar, N. M., & Kaifi, M. M. (2012). A multi-generational workforce: Managing and understanding millenials. International Journal of Business and Management, 7(24), 88–93.

Keren-kolb, L. (2013). Engage, enhance and extend learning ! Learning & Leadning with Technology, 5191, 20–27. Retrieved from

Kim, C., Kim, M. K., Lee, C., Spector, J. M., & DeMeester, K. (2013). Teacher beliefs and technology integration. Teaching and Teacher Education, 29, 76–85.

Kim, E., & Corcoran, R. P. (2018). Factors that influence pre-service teachers’ persistence. Teaching and Teacher Education, 70, 204–214.

Kirkwood, A., & Price, L. (2014). Technology-enhanced learning and teaching in higher education: What is ‘enhanced’ and how do we know? A critical literature review. Learning, Media and Technology, 39(1), 6–36.

Klassen, R. M., Frenzel, A. C., & Perry, N. E. (2012). Teachers’ relatedness with students: An underemphasized component of teachers basic psychological needs. Journal of Educational Psychology, 104(1), 150–165.

Koehler, M. J., & Mishra, P. (2005). What happens when teachers design educational technology? The development of technological pedagogical content knowledge. Journal Educational Computing Research, 32(2), 131–152.

Kuron, L. K. ., Lyons, S. T., Schwitzer, L., & Ng, E. S. . (2015). Millennials’ work values: Differences across the school to work transition. Personal Review, 44(6), 991–1009.

La Kahija, Y. F. (2017). Penelitian fenomenologis jalan memahami pengalaman hidup. Yogyakarta: Kanisius.

Laughter, J. C. (2011). Rethinking assumptions of demographic privilege : Diversity among white preservice teachers. Teaching and Teacher Education, 27(1), 43–50.

Liu, F., Ritzhaupt, A. D., Dawson, K., & Barron, A. E. (2016). Explaining technology integration in K-12 classrooms: A multilevel path analysis model. Educational Technology Research and Development, 65(4), 795–813.

Mark, G., Wang, Y., & Niiya, M. (2014). Stress and multitasking in everyday college life: An empirical study of online activity. Proceedings of the 32nd Annual ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems - CHI ’14, 41–50. 10.1145/2556288.2557361

Overbaugh, R. C., Lu, R., & Diacopoulos, M. (2015). Changes in teachers’ attitudes toward instructional technology attributed to completing the ISTE NETS*T certificate of proficiency capstone program. Computers in the Schools, 32(3–4), 240–259., B., & Erwin, K. (2016). Moving on From Millennials: Preparing for Generation Z. Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing, 47(6), 253–254.

Silverman, D. (2010). Doing qualitative research: A practical handbook (3rd Edition). London: Sage Publications.

Smith, D. (2013). Husserl: 2nd revised edition. London and New York: Routledge.

Smith, J., Flowers, P., & Larkin, M. (2009). Interpretative phenomenological analysis: Theory, method and research. California: Sage Publications.

Staker, H., & Horn, M. B. (2012). Classifying K-12 blended learning. California: Innosight Institute.

Twenge, J. M. (2009). Generational changes and their impact in the classroom: Teaching generation me. Medical Education, 43(5), 398–405.

Ulfah, S. (2016). Pengaruh komitmen dan kecerdasan emosional terhadap kinerja pegawai melalui kepuasan kerja sebagai variabel intervening (Studi kasus pada sekretariat daerah Kabupaten Jepara). Universitas Muria Kudus.

Van-Manen, M. (2014). Phenomenology of practice: Meaning-Giving methods in phenomenological research and writing. California: Left Coast Press.

Walker, G. (2011). The changing face of international education. Cardiff: International Baccalaureate.

Williams, V. N., Medina, J., Medina, A., & Clifton, S. (2017). Bridging the millennial generation expectation gap: Perspective and strategies for physician and interprofessional faculty. The American Journal of the Medical Sciences, 353(2), 109–115.

Article Metrics

Abstract has been read : 1312 times
PDF file viewed/downloaded: 0 times



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2021 Premiere Educandum : Jurnal Pendidikan Dasar dan Pembelajaran

Premiere Educandum: Jurnal Pendidikan Dasar dan Pembelajaran published by UNIVERSITAS PGRI MADIUN.

View Premiere Educandum Stats