Khotimatul Khusnah, Vita Vendityaningtyas


The purpose of this research is to describe the position of Black people as the folk who get discrimination in America and explain the Narrator’s voice as the Black people in conveying the equality between Black and White people in America that is represented in Invisible Man novel. This research uses qualitative research. The researcher needs postcolonial literature by Lois Tyson to get evidences the effects and goals of the author in creating a story. The analysis reveals that Black people include subordinate people, oppressed minority group, and lower class that always suppressed and exploited by superior people who have power. Black people try to fight against superior to show their feeling of freedom for getting the same position and equality as White by conveying their voice through protest. The conclusion shows that inferiority makes Black people who have lower position in society get oppression that cause physical and mental disturbance from superior and the Narrator tries to struggle and get confession of Black people from the domination of White in order to survive their existence in society by conveying the voice with non-violence way through speech, action and music.


Postcolonialism; Positioning; Subaltern; Freedom; Voice

Full Text:



Alfred, Gerald T. (2009). Colonialism and State Dependency. Journal de la santé autochtone. pp. 42-60

Anderson, James D. (1988). The Education of Black in the South, 1860-1935. London: The University of North California Press.

Ary, D., Jacobs, L., Sorenson, C., and Razavieh, A. (2010). Introduction to Research in Education 8th ed. Belmont: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.

Ashcroft, B. (2001). On Post-Colonial Futures: Transformation of Colonial Culture. New York: Continuum.

Ashcroft, B., Griffiths, G., and Tiffin, H. (Eds). (2007). Post-Colonial Studies: Key Concept 2nd ed. New York: Routledge.

Berg, Bruce L. (2001). Qualitative Research Methods for the Social Sciences 4th ed. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

Black, Dan, Muszynska, M., Sanders, S., Taylor, L. (2010). The Great Migration and African-American Mortality: Evidence from Mississippi. Chicago Booth.

Bodenner, Chris. (2013). “Harlem Renaissance”. Issues and Controversies in American History. pp. 1-15.

Bourassa, Alan. (2006). “Affect, History, and Race and Ellison’s Invisible Man”. “CLCWeb: Comparative Literature and Culture Vol. 8, No 2, pp. 2-8.

Femia, J. (1981). Gramsci’s Political Thought: Hegemony, Consciousness, and the Revolutionary Process. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Joseph, Peniel E. (2009). The Black Power Movement: A State of the Field. The Journal of American History. pp. 751-776.

Lamm, Kimberly. (2003). Visuality and black masculinity in Ralph Ellison's Invisible Man and Romare Bearden's photomontages. Callaloo; Arts & Humanities. Vol.26, No.3; Full Text pp. 813-835.

Lemka, S. and Samad, A. (2008). Non-violence in the Civil Rights Movement in the United State of America. Disertation. Freie Universität Berlin JFK Institut.

Mizan, Souzana. (2011). National Geographic: Visual and Verbal Representations of Subaltern Cultures Revisited. Sao Paulo.

Neimneh, S., Muhaidat, F., Al-Omari, K., and Al-Shalabi, N. (2012). Genre, Blues, and (Mis) Education in Ralph Ellison’s Invisible Man. Cross-Cultural Communication. Vol. 8, No. 2, pp. 61-72.

Saikia, Gitali. (2014). Revolutionary Artist Dr. Bhupen Hazarika: Voicing the Silence of the Subaltern. Asian Journal Humanities and Social Sciences. Vol. 2. No. 4, pp. 55-65.

Shands, Kerstin W. (2008). Neither East nor West: Postcolonial Essays On Literature, Culture, and Religion. Sweden: Sodertorns Hongskola.

Smith, Kylie. (2010). Gramski at the Margins: Subjectivity and Subalternity in a Theory of Hegemony. International Gramsci Journal No. 2, pp. 39-50.

Tylor, Q. (2000). The African American Experience: A History of Black Americans from 1619 to 1890. Departement of History University of Washington

Tyson, L. (2006). Critical Theory Today: A User Friendly Guide. New York: Routledge.

Western, Bruce and Pettit, Becky. (2005). Black-White Wage Inequality, Employment Rates, and Incarceration. American Journal of Sociology. The University of Chicago Vo. 111, No. 2, pp. 553-578.

Yin, Robert K. (2011). Qualitative Research from Start to Finish. New York: The Guildford Press.

Article Metrics

Abstract has been read : 719 times
PDF file viewed/downloaded: 0 times



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2019 English Teaching Journal : A Journal of English Literature, Language and Education

ETJ Stats


English Teaching Journal: A Journal of English Literature, Language and Education indexed by:

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.